In a short summary of a couple important points covered in Chapter 5, I will bring up what two combined design elements come together to make a “shape”, and how negative space can be used to form a shape that enhances an image. First, the two combined design elements of line and area. This means that a shape is the basic outline of an object formed by a line and the area enclosed by that line. Next, negative space can be used to create a shape that enhances an image by creating an area with an imaginary outline. Just as we did in class with the stool, rather than drawing the stool itself, we drew all but the stool, and pictured it as if we had a completely white backdrop behind it, whereas all you would do is draw the white area. As a finished project, the stool was visible because of the negative space around it being used to show what it was.
Chapter 6 covers value and what affects it, and how it affects a design. Value, when applied to design, refers to the variation of light and dark areas within a design. This can be applied to an image that uses only one color (monochromatic) to an image that uses many colors. One thing that can greatly affect value is the position of a light source. This is why if it was pitch black in an image, and the light source was below an object, it would make absolutely no sense to have the reflection of a light source on top of the object. A designer must pay attention to things like this, because they are absolutely crucial in a drawing or design.
Chapter 4 discusses lines and how they are used in design. One use of lines in design is a contour drawing, which is a drawing comprised of the lines that follow the outline or silhouette of the object being portrayed. Many uses would be on that of a persons figure, an animal, or a face. When one is making a line drawing, they must think of all the variables that apply and will have an effect on the final outcome. One of such factors is line thickness, which can affect your drawing in multiple ways. The thickness of a line can give your design the illustration of volume, space, or another dimension that is implied. There are also three different kinds of lines used in design work, actual lines, implied lines, and imaginary or (psychic) lines. An actual line is drawn and has solidity, a mark that has a beginning and end. An implied line is a bit different, in the way that it is made up of other elements that allows one to perceive it as another line. An imaginary line is not what you draw on the floor to keep someone out of your room, it is actually a line that is referred to as more subtle than an implied line. It is created by not using any other part of a line at all, but more of an eye trick which is caused by the rest of the design, allowing ones eye to follow a line that doesn’t actually exist in the design/image. An interesting technique also used with lines is called hatching or (hashing), which is using a multitude of lines to produce shading. Some create a darker area, and some even imply volume through the use of hatching. The last thing discussed is an issue that refers to lines drawn on computers, or other digital devices. The little parts that the picture, or line is comprised of is a pixel. Pixels are very small squares that can carry color, and be used for lines, pictures, design work, lettering, and a multitude of other things. But pixels have a downfall, and that is curved edges. Being squares, no pixel can ACTUALLY curve to produce a curved line. So they are offset from eachother at the slightest amount possible to create the illusion of a curve in the line. But when one zooms in on an image or gets a print out, a curved line produced of pixels is very obvious due to the fact that the pixels are visible around the curve. This was a summary of Chapter 4 answering the review questions within.
Negative space used to draw a stool.
Chapter 3 went over quite a bit about format, space, and what to think about when making a design. The first thing Chapter 3 mentions is Format, format is size. Not size as in length and width of a screen. The size mentioned in format is measured in pixels, meaning different resolution screens will bring up images in different ways based on the resolution of the image as opposed to the resolution of the screen. The resolution capabilities of computer monitors has been steadily increasing to a higher number over the past years. Meaning a picture that someone may have uploaded in early 2000 at a resolution of 800×600 would appear quite small on a newer higher resolution monitor. So in Digital Media, we must learn to estimate what resolution we should use for what purposes.
The next thing this chapter went over was the different kinds of space. There are three different kinds of space, which can all be manipulated and focused to create different effects on a design. The three kinds of space are known as positive space, negative space, and illusionary space.
Positive space is any design element which is understood to have implied volume, such as an object. An example of positive space an image of a car parked on a hilltop. The car is the positive space, whereas the environmental elements around the car are negative space.
This Supra (car) is the positive space in the image.
Negative space is just everything else in a design that sometimes surrounds, or is within the positive space. Such as in the same photo, the sky, ground, and trees. These elements would be considered negative space.
In this image, what is positive space and what is negative space may be questioned based on who views the picture. It could be a vase, or two human heads facing eachother.
The other type of space is illusionary space, this refers to any element that creates the illusion of a third dimension or depth on a two dimensional picture plane.
This is a screenshot from Sonic The Hedgehog 2, produced in 1992 for SEGA gaming consoles. This shows just how an image placed in smaller size and behind the rest of the environment makes it appear that there are hills and an ocean in the background of this zone.
These examples show how space can be used to adjust what we see. For example, if two objects are the same size but one is closer to the viewer, the one farthest from the viewer will appear smaller. The object closer to a viewer appears lower in an image generally. Objects that are “in the distance” usually appear darker than the “closer” more prominent images. Objects that are closer to the viewer will also have a sharper focus than that of the images that are far away.